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Nevertheless during the Arab riots, the town became a headquarters for Arab guerillas attacking Jewish villages.
The city was destroyed by a massive earthquake in and archaeologists are still uncovering the remains of the ancient civilizations. The most impressive of the ruins is the Roman Theater, which was built around the year Built to accommodate roughly 8, people, the theater has a stone stage and was used for dramatic productions. Israel Fact. An American tourist looking for coins with a metal detector near Kibbutz Tirat Tzvi discovered one of the only two bronze busts of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
Gilboais Kibbutz Hefzibah, which has on its grounds the 6th century Beit Alpha synagogue. What makes this synagogue special is its beautifully preserved mosaic floor showing the 12 signs of the Zodiac with their names written in Hebrew and Aramaic.
The floor was discovered by farmers while they were digging an irrigation ditch in At the time, Jews were very worried about the vulnerability of their pioneer towns to Arab attacks and specially designed these fort-like structures to enhance their security.
This became the model for 57 other settlements established between The settlements were surrounded by a double wooden defense wall that was filled with cement, to withstand bullets.
Graves dating from the Hellenistic period are simple, singular rock-cut tombs. In BCE the Seleucids finally conquered the region. Scythopolis prospered and became the leading city of the Decapolisthe only one west of the Jordan River.
The city flourished under the " Pax Romana ", as evidenced by high-level urban planning and extensive construction, including the best preserved Roman theatre of ancient Samariaas well as a hippodromea cardo and other trademarks of the Roman influence. Mount Gilboa7 km 4 mi away, provided dark basalt blocks, as well as water via an aqueduct to the town. The Penn. University Museum excavation of the northern cemetery, however, did uncover significant finds. The Roman period tombs are of the loculus type: a rectangular rock-cut spacious chamber with smaller chambers loculi cut into its side.
A sarcophagus with an inscription identifying its occupant in Greek as "Antiochus, the son of Phallion", may have held the cousin of Herod the Great.
Copious archaeological remains were found dating to the Byzantine period — CE and were excavated by the University of Pennsylvania Museum from — A rotunda church was constructed on top of the Tell and the entire city was enclosed in a wall.
The pagan temple in the city centre was destroyed, but the nymphaeum and Roman baths were restored. Many of the buildings of Scythopolis were damaged in the Galilee earthquake ofand in it became the capital of the northern district, Palaestina Secunda. The Byzantine period portion of the northern cemetery was excavated in The tombs from this period consisted of small rock-cut halls with vaulted graves on three sides. InByzantine forces were defeated by the Muslim army of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab and the city reverted to its Semitic name, being named Baysan in Arabic.
The day of victory came to be known in Arabic as Yawm Baysan or "the day of Baysan. Structures were built in the streets themselves, narrowing them to mere alleyways, and makeshift shops were opened among the colonnades.
The city reached a low point by the 8th century, witnessed by the removal of marble for producing limethe blocking off of the main street, and the conversion of a main plaza into a cemetery. On January 18,Umayyad Baysan was completely devastated by a catastrophic earthquake. A few residential neighborhoods grew up on the ruins, probably established by the survivors, but the city never recovered its magnificence.
The city center moved to the southern hill where later the Crusaders built their castle. Jerusalemite historian al-Muqaddasi visited Baysan induring Abbasid rule and wrote that it was "on the river, with plentiful palm trees, and water, though somewhat heavy brackish. In the Crusader скачать мелбет com, the Lordship of Bessan was occupied by Tancred in ; it was never part of the Principality of Galileedespite its location, but became a royal domain of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem inprobably until around His descendants were known by the family name de Bessan.
It occasionally passed back under royal control until new lords were created, becoming part of the Belvoir fiefdom. A small Crusader fortress surrounded by a moat was built in the area southeast of the Roman theatre, where the diminished town had relocated after the earthquake.
During the Battle of Ain Jalutretreating Mongol forces passed in the vicinity but did not enter the town itself. It was also the capital of sugar cane processing for the region. There were however some Jews. For example, the 14th century topographer Ishtori Haparchi settled there and completed his work Kaftor Vaferach inthe first Hebrew book on the geography of Palestine.
During the years of Ottoman rule, Baysan lost its regional importance. During the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II when the Jezreel Valley railwaywhich was part of the Haifa -Damascus extension of the Hejaz railway was constructed, a limited revival took place.
The local peasant population was largely impoverished by the Ottoman feudal land system which leased tracts of land to tenants and collected taxes from them for their use.
The Swiss—German traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt described Beisan in as "a village with 70 to 80 houses, whose residents are in a miserable state. Under the Mandate, the city was the center of the District of Baysan. InLawrence of Arabia noted that "Bisan is now a purely Arab village," where "very fine views of the river can be had from the housetops. Jewish forces and local Bedouins first clashed during the — civil war in Mandatory Palestine in February and Marchpart of Operation Gideon which Walid Khalidi argues was part of a wider Plan Dalet.
Beisan, then an Arab village, fell to the Jewish militias three days before the end of the Mandate. Relics from the Egyptian period were discovered, most of them now exhibited in the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem. Most memorable. I would have rated them better. It was pm, it was set to close at 4pm and he would not let me in. I tried to explain and begged him saying that I was leaving the country the next day and I only need 20 minutes to make a few photos.
He stubbornly refused to even talk to удалить зенитбет claiming that they are closed, and turned his computers off.
I wish I could have gave them 5 stars. This is another massive site worth exploring. See more on Google ». Start planning. National Park. Historic Site. Architectural Building. Religious Site.